Condensed Matter Research Group

 

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Condensed Matter Physics at Creighton

Condensed matter physics is a broad field of inquiry encompassing size scales from the atomic to human and energy scales from 0.1 eV to several eV.  The field emerged in the 1970s as an extension of successful solid state (crystalline) physics to include various types of soft matter including liquids, liquid crystals, self-assembled membranes, polymers and cooperative processes including phase transitions and critical phenomena.

The majority of the research in the Condensed Matter Group involves exploration of dynamics in complex materials using a variety of spectroscopy techniques.  Current research areas include:

Cryopreservation - investigation of the role of simple sugar solutions in the cryopreservation of biological proteins and tissues using both photon correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

Supercooled Liquids - investigation of the dynamics of ultraslow liquids near their glass transition point using photon correlation spectroscopy.

Ion Conduction in Amorphous Solids - investigation of ion dynamics in glass materials using impedance spectroscopy.

David L. Sidebottom, Ph.D.

sidebottom@creighton.edu

tel. 402 280 2935

fax. 402 280 2140

 


 

Research Interests

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The majority of the research in the Condensed Matter Group involves exploration of dynamics in complex materials using a variety of spectroscopy techniques.  Both undergraduate and graduate students are trained in these techniques and are actively engaged in the research.

Cryopreservation

Photon correlation spectroscopy measures the effective radius of aggregating sugar clusters.  Two regimes are found above and below a critical volume fraction.  A cluster phase of reasonably monodisperse clusters is found at low concentrations and a more robust cluster-cluster aggregation is present at high concentrations.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Simple sugars (glucose, sucrose and trehalose) are prominent ingredients in both naturally occurring and commercially manufactured cryopreserving agents but their function in preventing damaging intercellular ice formation in biological tissues is not fully understood.  On the one hand, adding sugar to water promotes vitrification of the solution as opposed to crystallization.  On the other hand, some evidence suggest that sugars preferentially absorb to proteins, expelling harmful water and producing a protective 'sugar coating'.  Our current research efforts are directed at testing these two hypotheses by studying the dynamics of fluorescent proteins in various sugar solutions using both photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopies.

Supercooled Liquids

 
Ortho-terphenyl is a common example of the radical increase of viscosity that occurs near the glass transition of a supercooled liquid.  Photon correlation spectroscopy probes the viscoelastic relaxation present in the liquid's dynamic structure factor for times between about 1 microsecond to 100's of seconds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


While we are most familiar with liquids, like water, that crystalize when cooled below their freezing points, most all substances (including water) can be cooled without crystalliztion into an amorphous (i.e., glass) state wherein the particles appear like a liquid but are no longer able to flow.  The transition from liquid to glass remains an active field of inquiry and is ranked among some of the top unsolved questions in physics.  In our lab, we are employing dynamic light scattering to investigate the demise of the liquid state as particle motions slow from microseconds to 100s of seconds.  Our current efforts are directed at understanding how these slow dynamics are related to details of the bonding in oxide and chalcogenide glass formers.

Ion Conduction in Amorphous Solids

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Driven in part by a global need for advanced energy storage technologies (i.e., batteries), researchers continue to explore the nature of ion motions in non-crystalline materials including polymer electrolytes and ion-conducting glasses.  Past research activities focussed on understanding the self-similar properties of ion conductivity seen in frequency-dependent impedance measurements and their possible connection with the structure of the amophous matrix.  More recent work has focussed on the origins of the so-called 'nearly constant loss' which is universally observed in ion conductors at extremely high frequencies or extremely low temperatures.

Recent Publications

Books

D. L. Sidebottom, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter and Crystalline Physics, (Cambridge University Press, 2012).

D. L. Sidebottom, Dynamic Light Scattering in Characterization of Materials, 2nd Ed. edited by E. N. Kaufmann (John Wiley and Sons, in press).

Reviews

D. L. Sidebottom, “Understanding Ion Motion in Disordered Solids from Impedance Spectroscopy Scaling,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 999 (2009).

J. C. Dyre, P. Maass, B. Roling and D. L. Sidebottom, “Fundamental Questions Relating to Ion Conduction in Disordered Solids,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 046501 (2009).

Refereed Publications

D. L. Sidebottom and S. E. Schnell, "Role of intermediate-range order in predicting the fragility of network-forming liquids near the rigidity transition." Physical Review B 87, 054202 (2013).

D. L. Sidebottom and M. Bassett, “Nearly Constant Loss in Lithium and LiCl-doped Borate Glasses,”  Z. Phys. Chem. 223, 1141 (2009).

R. Fabian, Jr. and D. L. Sidebottom, “Dynamic Light Scattering in Network-forming Sodium Ultraphosphate Liquids near the Glass Transition,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 064201 (2009).

J. R. Changstrom and D. L. Sidebottom, “Study of the Mixed Alkali Effect in Lithium and Sodium Metaphosphate Glassforming Liquids by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 285103 (2008).

D. L. Sidebottom and J. R. Changstrom, “Viscoelastic Relaxation of Molten Phosphorus Pentoxide using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 020201 (2008).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Ultraslow relaxation of hydrogen-bonded dynamic clusters in glass-forming aqueous glucose solutions: A light scattering study,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011505 (2007).

D. L. Sidebottom, B. V. Rodenburg and J. R. Changstrom, “Connecting Structure and Dynamics in Glass Forming Materials by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 132201 (2007).

B. V. Rodenburg and D. L. Sidebottom, “Dynamic Light Scattering in Mixed Alkali Metaphosphate Glassforming Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024502 (2006).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Constriction Effect in the Nearly Constant Loss of Alkali Metaphosphate Glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 134206 (2005).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Structural Influences upon the Dynamic Light Scattering from Glassforming Liquids,” Ceramic Transactions 170, 93 (2005).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Scaling Properties of Ion Conduction and What They Reveal About Ion Motion in Glasses,” Proceedings of the 1st International Discussion Meeting on Solid Ion Conducting Physics (Kyoto, September 2003) (published by World Scientific Publishing, 2007).

E. Metwalli, M. Karabulut, D. L. Sidebottom, M.M. Morsi, and R. K. Brow, “Properties and Structure of Copper Ultraphosphate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.  344(3), 128-134 (2004).  

D. L. Sidebottom, “Influence of Glass Structure on the ac Conductivity of Alkali Phosphate Glasses,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, S1585 (2003).
 

Student Presentations

2011

N. Holman and Y. Wang,  E. Haas, M. Nichols, and D. L. Sidebottom, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Tryptophan-containing Proteins in Sugar Solutions,” poster presentation at Spring meeting of BPS (March 2011).

 

T. Tran and D. L. Sidebottom, "Universal Patterns of Cluster Growth in Aqueous Sugars Observed by Dynamic Light Scattering", poster presentation at March Meeting of APS (March 2011). Awarded first prize in poster competition sponsored by Division of Chemical Physics.

 

E. Svingen and D. L. Sidebottom, "Development of an Ensemble-Averaged Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Experiment", poster presentation at March Meeting of APS (March 2011).

 

 

2010

T. Tran and D. L. Sidebottom, "Universal Patterns of Cluster Growth in Aqueous Sugars Observed by Dynamic Light Scattering", oral presentation at Annual All Iowa Conference on Glass, Coe College, IA (Aug. 2010).

 

S. Schnell and D. L. Sidebottom, "Light Scattering Study of Structural Effects on the Dynamics of Glassforming Oxides," oral presentation at Annual All Iowa Conference on Glass, Coe College, IA (Aug. 2010).

 

N. Holman and D. L. Sidebottom, "Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Tryptophan-containing Proteins in Sugar Solutions", oral presentation at Annual All Iowa Conference on Glass, Coe College, IA (Aug. 2010).

 

E. Svingen and D. L. Sidebottom, "Development of an Ensemble-Averaged Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Experiment", oral presentation at Annual All Iowa Conference on Glass, Coe College, IA (Aug. 2010).

 

 

2009

T. Tran and D. L. Sidebottom, "Cluster Growth in Aqueous Maltose Solutions Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering," oral presentation at 129th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2009).

2008

R. L. Fabian and D. L. Sidebottom, "Dynamic light scattering in phosphate glasses," poster presentation at Glass and Optical Materials Division Meeting, Tucson, AZ (May 2008).

M. Durante and D. L. Sidebottom, "Glassforming dynamics of aqueous maltose from dynamic light scattering," poster presentation at Glass and Optical Materials Division Meeting, Tucson, AZ (May 2008).

R. L. Fabian and D. L. Sidebottom, "Dynamic light scattering in phosphate glasses," oral presentation at 128th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2008).

M. Durante and D. L. Sidebottom, "Glassforming dynamics of aqueous maltose from dynamic light scattering," oral presentation at 128th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2008).

2007

M. Durante and D. L. Sidebottom, "Glassforming dynamics of aqueous maltose from dynamic light scattering," oral presentation at 21st All Iowa Conference on Glass, Ames, IA (Aug. 2007).

B. Rodenburg and D. L. Sidebottom, "Concerning the non-ergodic level in glass-forming liquids of varying fragility: A dynamic light scattering study," poster presentation at Glass and Optical Materials Division Meeting and 18th University Conference on Glass, Rochester, NY (May 2007).

J. Changstrom and D.L. Sidebottom, "Dynamic light scattering in mixed alkali metaphosphate glassforming liquids," poster presentation at (1) Glass and Optical Materials Division Meeting and 18th University Conference on Glass, Rochester, NY (May 2007) and (2) the 21st All Iowa Conference on Glass, Ames, IA (Aug. 2007).

M. Durante and D. L. Sidebottom, "Development of optical cyrostat for glass transition studies of saccharine solutions." oral presentation at 127th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2007).

J. Changstrom and D. L. Sidebottom, "Dynamic light scattering in mixed alkali metaphosphate glassforming liquids," oral presentation at 127th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2007).

B. Rodenburg and D. L. Sidebottom, "Studying the dynamics of glass-forming materials via photon correlation spectroscopy," oral presentation at 127th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2007).

B. Rodenburg and D. L. Sidebottom, "Studying the dynamics of glass-forming materials via photon correlation spectroscopy," oral presentation at Creighton College of Arts and Sciences 3rd Annual Honors Program (April 2007).

2006

N. Akhtar and D. L. Sidebottom, "Study of glassforming properties of sugars using light scattering," poster presentation at 1st Annual Ferlic Scholars Symposium, Creighton University (October 2006).

B. Rodenburg and D. L. Sidebottom, "Study of epoxy relaxation times in relation to similar relaxations in molten glass," oral presentation at 126th Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Lincoln, NE (April 2006).
 

Publications

Publications

Reviews and Book Chapters

D. L. Sidebottom, “Dynamic Light Scattering,” in Characterization of Materials (Wiley, 2012).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Understanding Ion Motion in Disordered Solids from Impedance Spectroscopy Scaling,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 999 (2009).

J. C. Dyre, P. Maass, B. Roling and D. L. Sidebottom, “Fundamental Questions Relating to Ion Conduction in Disordered Solids,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 046501 (2009).

Refereed Publications

D. L. Sidebottom and S. E. Schnell, "Role of intermediate-range order in predicting the fragility of network-forming liquids near the rigidity transition." Physical Review B 87, 054202 (2013).

 

D. L. Sidebottom and T. D. Tran, “Universal Patterns of Equilibrium Cluster Growth in Aqueous Sugars Observed by Dynamic Light Scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 82, 051904 (2010).

 

R. Fabian, Jr. and D. L. Sidebottom, “Dynamic Light Scattering in Network-forming Sodium Ultraphosphate Liquids near the Glass Transition,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 064201 (2009).

 

D. L. Sidebottom and M. Bassett, “Nearly Constant Loss in Lithium and LiCl-doped Borate Glasses,”  Z. Phys. Chem. 223, 1141 (2009).

R. Fabian, Jr. and D. L. Sidebottom, “Dynamic Light Scattering in Network-forming Sodium Ultraphosphate Liquids near the Glass Transition,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 064201 (2009).

J. R. Changstrom and D. L. Sidebottom, “Study of the Mixed Alkali Effect in Lithium and Sodium Metaphosphate Glassforming Liquids by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 285103 (2008).

D. L. Sidebottom and J. R. Changstrom, “Viscoelastic Relaxation of Molten Phosphorus Pentoxide using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 020201 (2008).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Ultraslow relaxation of hydrogen-bonded dynamic clusters in glass-forming aqueous glucose solutions: A light scattering study,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011505 (2007).

D. L. Sidebottom, B. V. Rodenburg and J. R. Changstrom, “Connecting Structure and Dynamics in Glass Forming Materials by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 132201 (2007).

B. V. Rodenburg and D. L. Sidebottom,  “Dynamic Light Scattering in Mixed Alkali Metaphosphate Glassforming Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024502 (2006).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Constriction Effect in the Nearly Constant Loss of Alkali Metaphosphate Glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 134206 (2005).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Structural Influences upon the Dynamic Light Scattering from Glassforming Liquids,” Ceramic Transactions 170, 93 (2005).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Scaling Properties of Ion Conduction and What They Reveal About Ion Motion in Glasses,” Proceedings of the 1st International Discussion Meeting on Solid Ion Conducting Physics (Kyoto, September 2003) (published by World Scientific Publishing, 2007).

E. Metwalli, M. Karabulut, D. L. Sidebottom, M.M. Morsi, and R. K. Brow, “Properties and Structure of Copper Ultraphosphate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.  344(3), 128-134 (2004). 

D. L. Sidebottom, “Influence of Glass Structure on the ac Conductivity of Alkali Phosphate Glasses,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, S1585 (2003).

D. L. Sidebottom and C. M. Murray-Krezan, “Properties  of the Near Constant Loss in Selected Phosphate and Germanate Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 195901 (2002).

J. Zhang and D. L. Sidebottom, “Modeling the a.c. Conductivity Dispersion of Mixed Alkali Germanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.  288, 18 (2001).

D. L. Sidebottom, B. Roling, and K. Funke, “Ionic Conduction in Solids: Comparing Conductivity and Modulus Representations with Regard to Scaling Properties,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 024301 (2000).

D. L. Sidebottom and J. Zhang, “Scaling of the a.c. Permittivity in Ion-conducting Glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 5503 (2000).

D. L. Sidebottom , “Influence of Cation Constriction on the a.c. Conductivity Dispersion in Metaphosphate Glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14507 (2000).

D. L. Sidebottom,     “Dimensionality Dependence of the Conductivity Dispersion in Ionic Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 983 (1999).

D. L. Sidebottom,     “A Universal Approach for Scaling the a.c. Conductivity in Ionic Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3653 (1999).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Evidence for Site Memory Effects in the Ionic Relaxation of (Li20)x(Na20)y(GeO2)1-x-y Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 255, 67 (1999).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, “Brillouin Scattering in Alkali Metaphosphate Glasses and Melts,” J. Mol. Struct. 479, 219 (1999).

D. L. Sidebottom, “Ionic Conductivity in Glasses: Is the Window Effect Statistically Relevant?”, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 244, 223 (1999).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, “Regarding the Correlation of Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Electrical Conductivity Relaxation in Ionic Glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5870 (1998).

S. A. Peebles, L. Sun, R. L. Kuczkowski, L. M. Nxumalo, T. A. Ford, P. F. Green, D. L. Sidebottom, R. K. Brow and J. J. Hudgens, “Mechanical  Relaxation Anomalies in Mixed Alkali Oxides,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 231, 89 (1998).

D.L. Sidebottom, M.A. Hruschka, B.G. Potter, and R.K. Brow, “Increased Radiative Lifetime of Rare Earth-Doped Zinc Oxyhalide Tellurite Glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1963 (1997).

D.L. Sidebottom, M.A. Hruschka, B.G. Potter, and R.K. Brow, “Structure and Optical Properties of Rare Earth-Doped Zinc Oxyhalide Tellurite Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 222, 282 (1997).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, “Structural Correlations in the a.c. Conductivity of Ion-containing Glasses,”  J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 222, 354 (1997).

D.L. Sidebottom, M.A. Hruschka, B.G. Potter, R.K. Brow, and J.J. Hudgens, “Optical Properties of Lanthanide-Containing Halide-Modified Zinc Tellurite Glasses,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 453, 253 (1997).

D.L. Sidebottom and C.M. Sorensen, “Time and Ensemble Averaged Dynamic Light Scattering in Orthoterphenyl Above and Below the Glass Transition,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 455, 189 (1997).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, "Scaling Parallels in the Non-Debye Dielectric Relaxation of Ionic Glasses and Dipolar Supercooled Liquids," Phys. Rev. B 56, 170 (1997).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow,     "Scaling Behavior in the Conductivity of Alkali Oxide Glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 203, 300 (1996).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, "Two Contributions to the ac Conductivity of Alkali Oxide Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5068 (1995).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, "Anomalous Diffusion Model of Ionic Transport in Oxide Glasses," Phys. Rev. B 51, 2770 (1995).

D.L. Sidebottom, P.F. Green, and R.K. Brow, "Comparison of KWW and Power Law Analyses of an Ion-Conducting Glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 183, 151 (1995).

P.F. Green, D.L. Sidebottom, and R.K. Brow, "Relaxations in Mixed Alkali Metaphosphate Glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 172-174, 1352 (1994).

C.M. Sorensen, D.L. Sidebottom and S.Z. Ren, "Dynamic Light Scattering Studies of Glasses and Gels: Analogies in Relaxation Behavior," in Lectures on Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics  (Edited by M. Costas, R. Rodriguez and A. L. Benavides, World Scientific Publ. Co., New Jersey, USA) 1994.

D.L. Sidebottom, R. Bergman, L. Börjesson, and L. M. Torell, "Two-Step Relaxation Decay in a Strong Glassformer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2260 (1993).

D.L. Sidebottom,  "Ultrasonic Measurements of an Epoxy-Resin Near its Sol/Gel Transition," Phys. Rev. E 48, 391 (1993).

L.M. Torell, P. Jacobsson, D. Sidebottom, and L. Börjesson, "Structural Relaxation Characteristics of Glass Forming Polymeric Liquids Subject to Transient Crosslinks," Progr. Colloid. Poly. Sci. 91, 46 (1993).   

L.M. Torell, P. Jacobsson, D. Sidebottom, and G. Petersen, "The Importance of Ion-Polymer Crosslinks in Polymer Electrolytes," Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1037 (1992).

J. Vanderwal, D. Sidebottom, D. Walton, and G.P. Johari, "Brillouin Scattering Study of a Polymer Hydrogel," J. Polym. Sci. B 30, 1089 (1992).

D. L. Sidebottom, R. Bergman, L. Börjesson, and L. M. Torell, "Observation of Scaling Behavior in the Liquid-Glass Transition Range from Dynamic Light Scattering in Poly(Propylene Glycol)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3587 (1992).

D. L. Sidebottom and G. P. Johari,  "Sub-Tg Relaxations in LiClO4-Poly(Propylene Glycol)-2000 Solutions," J. Polym. Sci. B 29, 1215 (1991).

D. L. Sidebottom and G. P. Johari, "Chemical and Physical Effects During Spontaneous Relaxation of a Network-Structure Glass," Chem. Phys. 147, 205 (1990).

D. L. Sidebottom and C. M. Sorensen, "Dynamic Light Scattering Study of Non-exponential Relaxation in Supercooled 2Ca(NO3)23KNO3," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 7153 (1989).

D. L. Sidebottom and C. M. Sorensen, "A Light-Scattering Study of the Glass Transition in Salol," Phys. Rev. B 40, 461 (1989).

D. L. Sidebottom and C. M. Sorensen, "Comparison of Field Variables for Critical Phenomena Description," Chem. Phys. Lett. 151 (6), 489 (1988).

D. L. Sidebottom and C. M. Sorensen, "Light-Scattering Studies of a Ternary Mixture: Comparison of Field Variables for Critical Phenomena Description," J. Chem. Phys. 89 (3), 1608 (1988).

 

 

Funding

Research Funding

Creighton University/Omaha Public Power District: University-Industry R&D Partnership (Nebraska EPSCoR, P.I.: D. Sidebottom, 6 months, $10,000 total 1/2010 - 6/2010).  Research capabilities at Creighton are joined with industry knowledge at OPPD to explore the efficacy of renewable energy for the state of Nebraska.

Dynamic light scattering test of bond model prediction for the dynamics of network-forming liquids near the glass transition (National Science Foundation, P.I.: D. Sidebottom, 4 year, $370,000 total 9/2009 - 9/2013).  The goal of this study is to investigate structural relaxation in molten oxide glasses to test bond model predictions.

Light Scattering and Fluorescence Study of Sugar Solutions as Cryoprotective Agents in Protein Storage (National Institutes for Health, P.I.: D. Sidebottom, 2 year, $216,750 total 9/2009 – 9/2011).  The goal of this project is to investigate the cryopreserving properties of aqueous sugars using fluorescent proteins and dynamic light scattering techniques.

Dynamic light scattering investigation of the mixed alkali effect in alkali metaphosphate glasses (Research Corporation. P.I.: D. L. Sidebottom, $37,200 direct (w/ $4,000 matching), 5/2006 - 5/2008).  The goal of this project is to study the effects of mixing alkali species on the viscoelastic relaxation of molten metaphosphate glasses using photon correlation spectroscopy.

Dynamic light scattering in network-forming glasses (Petroleum Research Fund. P.I.: D. L. Sidebottom, $35,000 direct, 5/2006 - 5/2008).  Novel photon correlation spectroscopy measurements of molten oxide glasses are planned to investigate how glass fragility is connected to chemical structure.

Acquisition of Impedance Spectroscopy Lab: A User Facility (Roy J. Carver Trust, Award Number: #07-2895, co-P. I.: D. Sidebottom, $ 472,896 total equipment).  This is a collaborative equipment proposal to obtain a state of the art impedance spectroscopy facility at Iowa State University which could be used by several research groups in the midwest.

Search for vibrational origins of the nearly constant loss in ion-conducting glasses (Creighton University Summer Faculty Research Fellowship, $4,500, Summer 2004).  This study explored the nearly constant loss in a series of alkali metaphosphate glasses.

Reinvestigation of Ionic Motion in Amorphous Materials: A Power Law Approach to the a.c. Conductivity (Department of Energy - Basic Energy Sciences, Award Number: DE-FG03-98ER45696, P. I.: D. Sidebottom, $ 320,000 total, 5/1998 - 5/ 2002).  The goal of this project was to understand the origins of self-similar features in the a.c. conductivity of ion-conducting materials.
 

 

Fundamentals of Condensed Matter and Crystalline Physics

Welcome

Welcome to the author's own interim textbook webpage.  Your comments, questions and other feedback are welcome at: sidebottom@creighton.edu

News

Ivan Smalyukh of University of Colorado recently offered a review of the textbook in the May 2013 issue of Physics Today that might be of interest.

Moreton Moore of Royal Holloway University of London has also offered a review of the textbook in  Crystallography Reviews.

What

Fundamentals of Condensed Matter and Crystalline Physics

available August 2012 through Cambridge University Press or Amazon.com

 

This undergraduate-level textbook is designed to provide students with an orientation to the broad field of Condensed Matter Physics (and traditional Solid State Physics) by emphasizing major foundational principles (e.g., structure, scattering, symmetry, self-similarity, scaling) that form a body of collective common knowledge which beginners in the field should understand.  With this introduction, undergraduate students should be comfortable with much of the terminology and concepts that they are likely to encounter in the research literature.

 

Unlike most all other texts on the subject of Condensed Matter Physics, this textbook was designed specifically for an undergraduate reader.  It is written in a relaxed, engaging style and incorporates numerous figures and illustrations to aid in reader comprehension.  A previous course in thermodynamics would be beneficial, but not altogether necessary and only a sophomore  level understanding of quantum mechanics, as is obtained in an introductory modern physics course, is needed.

Why

During the eight years that I have taught Solid State Physics, I have been steadily augmenting the material found in Kittel's Introduction to Solid State Physics textbook with what I deem to be key themes of Condensed Matter Physics n the hopes of offering my students a broader perspective of condensed materials than that typically offered in a traditional (crystalline) solid state physics course.  As there is no single textbook that provides this broad coverage at an undergraduate level, I have had to splice together subject material from multiple sources with that in Kittel to create the one semester, hybridized course that I envision.

 

On my most recent sabbatical, I took the opportunity to develop all of the course topics (both traditional, crystalline solid state and more modern, often non-crystalline condensed matter physics) into a working document that would function as a course textbook.  The result is a textbook that develops both traditional solid state physics alongside condensed matter physics in a balanced and seamless fashion and emphasizes the larger common significance of structures, dynamics, and phase transitions in materials.

 

I believe a textbook like this is long overdue.  I suspect there are many other departments like ours at Creighton that are similarly restricted in the number of elective courses they can sponsor for their undergraduate students and who might, given the similarity or overlap between solid state physics and condensed matter physics, be interested in combining these into a single offering - if only they had a textbook suited to the task.

Corrections

Below is a link to a growing list of errors that folks have kindly brought to my attention. Thanks to all!

Content Destination: 

Errata

Known errors in first edition:

Figure 1.9: The a3 (prime) unit vector for the primitive lattice for the BCC is incorrectly listed.  It should be a positive y_hat (not negative y_hat) unit vector.

Page 15: Although the intent to compare NaCl and CsCl structures as different because of differing sizes of the ions involved is as I intended, I totally screwed up the sizes of the ions and misspoke on page 15.  The Cs cation is about 167 pm, the Na cation only 97 pm and the Cl anion is around 181 pm (according to a table in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics).  NaCl prefers the FCC b/c the small Na cation fits well with Cl into this space saving configuration.  By contrast, Cs with size near that of Cl, saves space better by filling the large central void of the SC. 

Exercise 1.8: The density is incorrectly given as that of the liquid bromine (3.12 g/cc) and should be that of the solid (about 4.05 g/cc).  Also the unit vectors are incorrectly labeled with the same index.  They should read a_1 = 4.65 Å, a_2 = 6.72 Å, and a_3 = 8.70 Å.

Exercise 2.5: mistakenly refers to As2Ge3 as a "chalcogenide" which is technically incorrect.

Figure 3.2: caption should read: "The Lennard-Jones potential (solid curve) showing ...".

Page 38: third line under Ionic Bond heading should read "... periodic table (the alkalis), whose ...".

Figure 3.7: caption has "2delta+" which should be "2delta-".

Figure 7.4: vertical scale on the right hand side should be between +0.99 to 1.01.

Figure 10.2: vertical axis should be omega (not omega2) and, similarly, the label "4C1/m" should be under a square root.

Figure 10.8: vertical axis should be omega (not omega2) and, similarly, the labels at points b, c, and d should all be under a square root.

Figure 12.1: the units on the vertical axis should be C/T (mJ/mol K^-2).

Page 298, section 16.2.1, 11 lines down: should read L > \xi, not <

In Chapter 4 the notation regarding the various angular momentum and electron spin vectors is unnecessisarily screwy.  This pdf file shows the intended format.  In the text just above Eq. 4.5 the quantum number for spin should be lower cases and not have a vector over and not have any h-bar.  Eq. 4.5 should read similar to Eq. 4.4 but with the g factor multiplying and an S vector in place of the L vector.  A similar formulation is warranted for Eq. 4.7 with g' factor and J vector.  In the text above Eq. 4.6, the sums should not have the h-bars, but should be sums of the S vectors and L vectors respectively.  In Eq. 4.8, lower case letters should be used throughout.

FCMCP Ancillary Materials

Figures

Use the links below to download various (jpeg) copies of the figures found in the textbook.  As of this time (08/17/12), I cannot verify that all the figures are here or that they are not slightly different from that found in the textbook.  Nevertheless, I would estimate they are about 95% faithful to those in the textbook.

 Figures in Ch. 1 through Ch. 7

 Figures in Ch. 8 through Ch. 11

 Figures in Ch. 12 through Appendix

 

PowerpointTM Lectures

Use the links below to download various (ppt) lecture slides that I last used in 2011.  Not all chapters of the textbook are represented and not all the content of the textbook was discussed in class.  Most all of the slides have figures in them taken from the www in the heat of lecture-writing that are not properly credited.  I make no claims of authorship for these, but would speculate that their use in a purely educational setting might be justified within the context of "fair use".

 Lectures in Ch. 1 through 4

 Lectures in Ch. 5 through 8

 Lectures in Ch. 9 through 12

 Lectures in Ch. 13 through 15

 Lectures in Ch. 16 through 18

 

Old Syllabi and Some Exams

 Spring 2011